Linda Magill Group Safety

Are air fresheners bad for your health?

The short answer is in some cases YES they are.  Some air fresheners sold as consumer products are possibly hazardous to a person’s health. There are different types of air fresheners in the marketplace that are causing some alarm right now and for good reason.

We refer to the two main types of air fresheners in this article. Some air fresheners use chemicals that affect our sense of smell, paralyzing or numbing the nerves for a period of time after being exposed to the “fragrance” in the air freshener. Other types work by coating the nasal passage with a thin layer of oil which blocks the nerves.

Unless clearly marked otherwise, air fresheners and other scented products contain phthalates which are used to add longevity to the scent.

But first, let’s start with the ingredient listed on the labels called “fragrance”, or sometimes printed as “perfume”.

What is “Fragrance” or “Perfume” on the ingredients of Air Freshener mean?

When you look on the label for the ingredients used, you will often find something along the lines of “Fragrance” or “Perfume”. It’s usually, the first ingredient listed.

When looked up in the dictionary, the definition of “fragrance” is “the state or quality of having a pleasant odor”

Label of air freshener

Label of air freshener

Well, this doesn’t really tell us what is in the “fragrance”, it just tells us that it smells nice. But as far as the ingredients for the scent, that’s all that’s listed. Why is that you wonder?

It’s because the fragrance recipes are considered trade secrets, and because of this the manufacturers are not required to disclose the chemicals or ingredients used to produce the scent. Simply writing down “fragrance” is all that is required for the label.

Now, when we are talking about products with fragrance, unless otherwise stated, you can place a safe bet that “phthalates” are being used. Since the “phthalates” being used are considered part of the recipe, they are not usually listed with ingredients on the labels for consumers to be aware.

What are “Phthalates” and why are they used?

Phthalates are a man-made compound used in manufacturing soft plastics. They are made from a combination of alcohols and phthalic anhydride.

In natural form, phthalates are oily, colorless, odorless liquids that do not evaporate quickly. When added to a scented product, phthalates have the ability to hold a scent for a longer period of time. This makes it ideal for products that are used for their scent like perfumes, skin moisturizers, hairspray, and many more products.

Phthalates are known endocrine disrupters and have been linked to reproduction, developmental and behavior disorders. They are considered highly toxic, especially for babies and developing children and should be avoided when possible.

Spray from a air freshener

Air Freshener or Air Polluter?

Symptoms of exposure to phthalates may include:

  • Irregular heartbeats
  • Headaches
  • Earaches
  • Depression
  • Diarrhea in babies


Other concerns about use of Air Fresheners

As if phthalates and secret ingredients aren’t enough to worry about, there are some other very real concerns about some types of air fresheners and the chemicals they contain.

According to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, there are four basic ingredients in air fresheners are formaldehyde, petroleum distillates, p-dichlorobenzene, and aerosol propellants.

Let’s look at each of these ingredients a little closer.

A main ingredient of many air fresheners and a known carcinogen.

Formaldehyde is a colorless, flammable, strong-smelling chemical that is used in building materials and to produce many household products.

When exposed to formaldehyde at higher concentrations, some individuals may experience burning and watery eyes, nose and throat irritation, wheezing, nausea and skin irritation. The sensitivity to formaldehyde may also differ between persons, as some may be very sensitive to exposure and others may experience no discomfort. Long term exposure still needs more studies.

Petroleum Distillates
Petroleum distillates are hydrocarbon solvent produced from crude oil. Short term exposure symptoms include dizziness, headaches, nausea, and irritation of the eyes, nose and throat.

Center for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) & NIOSH list Petroleum distillates in their pocket guide to chemical hazards. There are listed exposure limits for workers because this stuff is dangerous to work with. Interesting that we willingly spray it into the air we breathe to make it smell nice.
p- dichlorobenzene
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has p- dichlorobenzene listed as indoor toxic air. Short term exposure may have symptoms such as irritated eyes, nose, throat and skin. Longer term exposure can result in adverse effects on the liver, central nervous system and skin.

Aerosol propellants
A compressed inert gas that acts as a vehicle for discharging the contents of an aerosol container.

There are a number of different propellants used that indclude:

  • Propane
  • Butane
  • Isobutene
  • Carbon dioxide / CO2
  • Nitrous oxide

It is doubtful that you will find out which of these are being used. It is very likely that on the label it will only be listed as “propellant”.

Nerve-deadening chemicals and Nasal coating

There types of air fresheners contain a nerve-deadening chemical that can actually paralyze the senses for a period of time. Others will coat the nasal passage with a thin layer of oil, blocking the sense of smell for a period of time.

The initial odour is not actually removed from the area, but you likely won’t smell it as your smelling senses have been temporarily turned off. As you regain your sense of smell, you also acclimatize to the smell in the air and it is not as offensive as it once was.

So there you have it, know you know what is in these air fresheners, and how some of them work.

Now, this doesn’t mean that you have to stop using all your favorite air fresheners. Like much of life, moderation is the key. When used in moderation and in a well ventilated area it is not likely to pose immediate health risks.

This article is meant as in information piece to inform on what is in the products that are being sold as it is not always made known on the labels.

Every individual has the right to pick their own poisons, but its only fair that you know exactly what poisons are potentially being sprayed into our environment before making that choice.



  • Have a scent free policy for work environment
  • Avoid synthetic fragrances
  • Use essential oils only
  • Look for no labels with NO synthetic fragrance or scented with essential oils only


University of California – Berkeley
University of California – Berkeley did a study in 2006 and the in the study it was found that many of the common household cleaners and air fresheners offered at stores could emit toxic pollutants at levels that may lead to health risks.

Natural Resource Defense Council

Natural Resource Defense Council tested 14 air fresheners and found that 12 of them contained phthalates.

Products that have “fragrance” most likely contain phthalates. Commonly found in perfumes and air sprays, there is no regulation in the air freshener industry so there is nothing to stop a company from introducing a new “fragrance” spray or air freshener before any studies are done to measure the amount of phthalates in the ingredients.

Phthalate exposure has been linked to birth defects and developmental disorders.


Daily Health Post

National Resources Defense Council

How stuff works

CBC News

Huffington Post


Science Daily

Community Research and Development Information Service

Breast Cancer & The Environment Research Centers

Scientific American


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Mixing household cleaning products can kill you

DID YOU KNOW… Mixing household cleaning products can kill you?

There are two cleaning products in particular that can be extremely lethal when mixed, bleach and ammonia. When these two cleaners are mixed together they produce a lethal chlorine gas.

Products that contain bleach (Clorox, toilet bowl cleaners) or ammonia (Windex, window cleaners) as part of its composition are obviously included, but sometimes overlooked.

Bleach and ammonia are both commonly used for cleaning and disinfecting floors, tiles, porcelain and many other surfaces. You may have bleach or ammonia with your cleaning supplies right now.

When these chemicals are used on their own and the directions are followed, the most common result is a clean surface. However, if these two chemicals are mixed together the outcome could be potentially deadly.

When ammonia and bleach are mixed together, the bleach breaks down into hydrochloric acid. The hydrochloric acid then reacts with the ammonia to produce chloramine vapours. These vapours are extremely toxic and can be fatal if inhaled.

On top of the deadly vapours, there is also the possibility that the mixture could boil and spray incredibly hot and toxic liquid. The liquid sprayed is liquid hydrazine and it can be created when the concentration of ammonia is very high.

This combination is so nasty and deadly that this chlorine gas was used as a chemical weapon during World War 1 & 2 by Germany. (See battle of Ypres 1915)

It is commonly mistaken that the combination of ammonia and bleach create mustard gas.

Mustard gas contains sulfur in its chemical make-up and has a sulfur (rotten egg) smell to it. Chlorine gas does not have sulfur or the rotten smell attached to it.

The symptoms of mustard gas were different as well. Immediate contact with mustard gas was very unpleasant, but not always fatal. The soldiers often fell ill hours or days after exposure.

Chlorine gas is a much faster acting poison, incapacitating and rendering the victim unconscious, or dead, in a matter of seconds.

The confusion between the two deadly gases is possibly related to the fact that both mustard gas and chlorine gas were used on the front lines during World War 1.



Chlorine vapours are extremely irritating to the eyes, causing immediate pain and possible blindness. The eyes feel like they are burning and it is very painful.

When the toxic chlorine vapours are breathed in to the respiratory system, the airways become inflamed and breathing is difficult and painful. It takes very little time to succumb to the chlorine vapours resulting in unconsciousness and possibly death by asphyxiation.



If you are exposed to vapours from the mixture of bleach and ammonia

  1. Remove yourself from the affected area immediately before going unconscious
  2. Call 911 for help.

If you suspect someone else has been exposed to the lethal mixture odds are they will be unconscious.

  1. Move the person out of the affected area and to fresh air immediately if possible without putting yourself in danger of succumbing to the vapours as well
  2. Call 911 immediately and follow the instructions given until help arrives

Before the area can be cleaned it will have to be fully ventilated and the toxic air removed. Open any windows and allow time for the gas to dissipate before re-entering the area.

When using any cleaning product, it is important to read the instructions to fully comprehend the proper handling and use of the material. Should there be an accident, the immediate first aid instructions are printed as well.

© Linda Magill Group 2014, All rights reserved


Chlorine Gas in the News:

Toronto School Fined $150,000 in death of worker in 2005

Mississauga Train Derailment 1979

World War 1 – Battle of Ypres 1915


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Scented Candles may be polluting your air

DID YOU KNOW… Scented candles may be polluting your air?

Candles are everywhere. They come in all shapes, colours, sizes and even scents. The candles may be used for emergency situations, church services, mood lighting or maybe just placed around the house to help make the air smell nice.

In the past, the candles were mainly made with all natural beeswax. The beeswax on its own has a pleasing scent to begin with so the need for further scents was not always necessary.

If there was a need to add another scent to the candle it would have been done by adding natural resources like flowers or herbs.

Now, forward to present day, and you will find that most of the scented wax candles found in stores are made out of a wax called paraffin wax.

What is paraffin wax?

Paraffin Wax

Paraffin Wax

Good question.

Paraffin is the residue left over during the refining process of lubrication oil. It is a white, waxy solid that has no odour or taste.

Paraffin wax is a petroleum based product. Studies show that when the paraffin wax is burned, the smoke and fumes contain a lot of the same properties of the exhaust from a car engine.

There is also much more soot produced with paraffin wax candles compared to other candles such as those made of  beeswax or soy wax. If you find a build-up of soot on the walls or ceilings around candle use, it may be an indicator that the candle is made of paraffin wax.

So how do the candles smell so good?

Those nice aromas coming from the scented candles at the stores now are made with artificial oils and chemicals. The chemicals and artificial oils are added to the paraffin wax to give the wax a scent.

Furthermore, if the candle wax has colour in it, then there would have been more chemicals added for the artificial colouring as well.

Studies are now showing that these added chemicals and artificial oils are significantly adding to the pollutants expelled from the burning candles. Several different studies have found that burning candles, scented candles especially, release many different toxins into the air.

One study found that some candles that were tested released almost as many toxins as cigarette smoke. Another study found that an air sample taken from a church where candles had been burning for 9+ hours had contained as many and similar pollutants as an air sample taken from the side of a highway.

People who suffer from asthma may find that asthmatic symptoms can be triggered or worsened by the fumes given off of some scented candles.

So what toxins where actually detected while burning candles?

The petroleum based paraffin candles studied were found to release a variety of toxins into the atmosphere when lit.

Most notably benzene, toluene, lead and ketone were all found in the candle fumes, smoke and soot. Some of the other toxins detected were styrene, ethyl benzene, naphthalene, acetyaldehyde, benzaldehyde, ethanol and methyl ethyl ketone.

Lead was found to be much higher in the candles that had metal core wicks. These are the wicks with a metal wire in the center of the wick to help keep them from falling into the wax when burned.

All of these toxins listed above are known cancer causing agents.

Some food for thought, the soot from a diesel engine has the same characteristics as the soot from some of the candles tested…..

What can you do?

Just like everything in life, moderation is key. If you burn a candle once in a while in a well-ventilated area, there is probably little, if anything, to worry about.

On the other hand if you are burning several scented candles regularly, in a small confined area (say a bathroom), it might be wise to open the windows and turn on a fan for ventilation.

Here are some tips for safe candle use:

  • Keep the wick low as possible, long wicks produce more soot
  • Use in well ventilated areas, open a window if possible
  • The most chemicals are released when the candle is blown out. If possible use a device such as a snuffer to minimise the smoke released

Try to avoid:

  • Candles made from paraffin wax
  • Scented candles with artificial oils
  • Wicks with metal cores (metal wire in the middle of the wick)
  • Candles made outside North America, where laws about production with lead might be lax

Look for:

  • Bees wax candles
  • Soy based candles
  • Scented with essential oils
  • Lead free wick
  • Candles made in north America where it is illegal to use lead in production

© Linda Magill Group 2014, All rights reserved


abc15 – Can burning candles make you sick

CNN – Study: Some types of candles may pollute indoor air

Health Canada – Candle safety

Green America – Are your candles toxic – US Scented Candle Study

Science Direct

South Carolina State University – Frequent use of certain candles produces unwanted chemicals

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Charges laid in relation to Princess St. fire in Kingston

Princess Street Fire Kingston 2013

Princess St. fire in Kingston, Dec. 2013

In December 2013 there was a huge fire on Princess Street in Kingston Ontario. The fire was a building that was under construction for student housing that went up in flames. It caught fire rather quickly because it was made almost entirely out of wood.

This fire also made national news when the crane operator had to be rescued by an emergency helicopter from the Trenton Military base.

The Ministry of Labour has now laid charges, 22 in total, in relation to the fire.

Charges were laid against company and individuals.

For more information see this CKWS Kingston news article.

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10 Safe Buying and Selling Tips for Kijiji / Craigslist

1. Don’t give out personal information
Avoid listing any personal information on Kijiji or other online classified sites. Most of the classified websites, if not all, offer to act as the middle man for initial communication between potential buyers and sellers. An account is set up, and the potential buyer will leave a message for the seller with information for further communication. There is no need to list your name, phone number, address, email or any other personal information. Give only the necessary information to sell the product or service. Also, be aware that a full name and address can be obtained simply from a reverse-lookup of a home phone number; you can use this, but so can the other party.

2. Google the Buyer/Seller’s name
It’s not a bad idea to do a quick Google search of the name of the other party. Just type their name in the Google search bar and see what comes up. If they have a past with the law, it will likely come up in a search and help you  avoid a sketchy transaction.

3. Always bring a friend with you
Have a friend come with you to buy/sell the items. The safety in numbers can remove the opportunity for a bad situation.

4. Ask about history of item being sold
Let’s be honest here, we don’t know for sure that the items being sold are not stolen or acquired illegally. Don’t be afraid to ask about the merchandise before you buy. If you get the vibe that something doesn’t feel right, maybe it’s something you might want to pass on.

5. Meet during daylight hours
We live in a busy world, and we all seem to be in a race against time. We work all day, then come home to make dinner, feed the kids, clean up after dinner, and the list goes on with many more routine tasks that fill up the day. Sometimes it may seem that a late evening meeting would be more convenient; but is it really necessary? Stay visible in well-lit areas when possible.

6. Meet in a public place
Make arrangements to meet in a public place to show or sell items. Consider meeting in a parking lot of large chain store, a coffee shop or even at a park. There is no need to show a complete stranger the valuables you have in your house, or introduce a complete stranger to your family’s home unnecessarily.

7. Use generic photos
There is no benefit to including identifying information in the pictures such as people, pets or front of houses with street numbers. Pictures should show the items in question with little else in the picture. Again, why show the contents of your home to strangers unnecessarily?

8. Payment
It is not uncommon to meet at a bank for exchanges for large amounts of money. It feels more secure and makes for a great public place to meet when purchasing from people on Kijiji or Craigslist.

9. Use common sense
When listing valuable items, take the precautions necessary to ensure your safety. Expensive jewelry, pricy electronics and other valuables can attract individuals with less than friendly intentions. Follow the steps above and remove opportunities to be a victim.

10. Follow your gut
If something feels off, and you don’t feel like things are on the up and up, get out. Is it really worth it to put yourself in a potentially dangerous situation? Probably not. If your Spidey senses start tingling, get out.

D. Magill
Linda Magill Group
May 16, 2013

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$1.5 Million Fine for Workplace Accident in Alberta

SSEC Canada Ltd has been ordered to pay $1.5 million, one of the largest fines ever imposed, in relation to a workplace accident that occurred in Alberta.

The accident took place in 2007 when SSEC made decisions related to the building of a holding tank. This is just the first of an upward trend in sentencing for serious workplace accidents in Canada.

$1.5 Million Penalty for Workplace Accident in Alberta
SSEC Canada Ltd., the Canadian subsidiary of Sinopec Shanghai Engineering, has been ordered to pay $1.5 million in relation to a workplace accident that killed two foreign nationals and injured three others in Alberta. The fine is widely being reported as the largest fine imposed for a workplace accident in Alberta.

According to an agreed statement of facts filed with the court, SSEC Canada Ltd. was contracted by Canadian Natural Resources Limited (CNRL) to build holding tanks at the Horizon Oil Sands Project near Fort McMurray, Alberta. SSEC Canada Ltd. recruited 132 Chinese citizens to provide the necessary labour, but their entry into Canada was delayed and the project fell behind schedule. In order to address the delay, SSEC Canada Ltd. proposed to assemble the tank walls and roof support structure at the same time, rather than to assemble the roof after the walls as originally planned. The proposal was not certified by an engineer. CNRL agreed to the proposed change, but amended the contract to require the work to be supervised by its team to ensure quality and safety. However, SSEC Canada Ltd. began using the new assembly method before CNRL employees arrived to supervise. Three weeks later on April 24, 2007, a tank roof collapsed when tensioned cables providing stability to the roofing structure snapped in high winds. Two workers were killed and three other workers received minor injuries.

Following an investigation, 53 charges under Alberta’s Occupational Health and Safety Act were laid against SSEC Canada Ltd., CNRL, and another company. After a lengthy and ultimately unsuccesful challenge to the jurisdiction of the courts, SSEC Canada Ltd. pleaded guilty to three charges in September, 2012. On January 24, 2013, the company was fined $200,000 and ordered to pay $1.3 million to fund a program to educate foreign workers about their rights under occupational health and safety laws.

The fine against SSEC Canada Ltd. is one of the largest fines imposed for a workplace accident in Alberta, and it is part of a upward trend in sentencing for serious workplace accidents in Canada.

Posted in: Workplace Safety

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